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韓國裁定 Google 壟斷,開出 50 億元罰單!

 本篇來自合作媒體中央社,INSIDE 經授權轉載。
韓國反壟斷監管單位 14 日裁定 Google 濫用其手機作業系統和 App 市場的主導地位,並開罰將近 1.8 億美元(約新台幣 50 億元),這是全球監管單位對科技巨頭壟斷行為祭出的最新裁罰。
韓國國會數週前通過修法,禁止蘋果(Apple)與 Google 強制 App 開發者使用兩大科技巨頭的支付系統,實際上等同宣告它們的 App Store 和 Play Store 的壟斷行為屬非法。
美國主要遊戲開發商 Epic Games 去年繞過 Apple 的系統,在旗下熱門遊戲「要塞英雄」(Fortnite) App 內建直接付費管道,隨後遊戲遭到蘋果 App Store 下架。 Epic 為此告上法院,美國法官上週裁定蘋果必須放鬆管制。
蘋果與 Google 主宰韓國 App 市場。韓國不僅是世界第 12 大經濟體,也以科技實力卓越著稱。
韓國公平交易委員會(KFTC)從 2016 年起針對 Google 展開調查,據稱 Google 妨礙當地智慧手機業者如三星電子等,打造客製化安卓作業系統(Android OS)。
韓國公平交易委員會表示, Google 透過反片段化協議(Anti-Fragmentation Agreement),妨礙智慧型手機業者在手機上安裝改裝過安卓系統,又被稱為安卓分支(Android forks)。
韓國公平交易委員會在聲明中稱:「由於這種限制,手機開發商沒辦法推出提供新服務的創新產品。 Google 就可以鞏固在手機作業系統市場的主宰地位。」
責任編輯:蜜雅
核稿編輯:Anny
延伸閱讀:
南韓擬禁止蘋果、Google 向軟體商抽佣 創全球首例再一槍!美國 36 州針對 Android Play Store 對 Google 發動大型反壟斷訴訟蘋果為美國開發者集體訴訟讓步 App Store 提出七大協議和解

區塊鏈與虛擬貨幣法律專題(十四) Howey Test於台灣司法實務上運用與細緻化的標準 | 中銀律師事務所 ZHONG YIN LAW FIRM

區塊鏈與虛擬貨幣法律專題(十四) Howey Test於台灣司法實務上運用與細緻化的標準
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區塊鏈與虛擬貨幣法律專題(十四) Howey Test於台灣司法實務上運用與細緻化的標準

Apple 生態系超震撼彈!美法院判決 iOS App 可以跳過「蘋果税」

各位還記得從去年 8 月開始,《要塞英雄》、Unreal Engine 開發商 Epic Games 因「蘋果税」問題,向美國加州法院提吿蘋果涉嫌壟斷嗎?現在判決出爐,法院裁定其他開發商可以繞過「蘋果税」了!
更精確的說,美國加州法院裁定蘋果不得限制、禁止其他開發商們使用自己的購買管道。原文是這麼寫的:
permanently restrained and enjoined from prohibiting developers from including in their apps and their metadata buttons, external links, or other calls to action that direct customers to purchasing mechanisms, in addition to In-App Purchasing and communicating with customers through points of contact obtained voluntarily from customers through account registration within the app.
除非上級法院另有裁決,否則這項禁令將在 12 月 9 日生效。某種程度上這已經是 Epic Games 的重大勝利,但距離「完全勝利」卻還有一大段距離,為什麼呢?
因為根據另一份判決,法院判定 Epic Games 在《要塞英雄》中使用自己的非蘋果購買管道這項行為違反了跟蘋果之間的合約,所以必須要向蘋果支付這段期間經過 iOS 產生的 30% 收入,預計將付超過 350 萬美元。
不過,或許對蘋果更重要的是這項判決:事前 Epic Games 曾提吿蘋果是一間「涉嫌壟斷」的公司,但法院表示無論根據聯邦或州層級反壟斷法,法院都無法得出蘋果是不是真有涉嫌壟斷的結論;法官表示,「不能因蘋果享有超過 55% 市場占比和極高的利潤,就指出蘋果真有進行壟斷。」
核稿編輯:李柏鋒
延伸閱讀:
韓國通過修法!禁止蘋果、Google 壟斷行動支付拜登矛頭對準科技巨頭,Google 宿敵獲提名帶領司法部反壟斷為解決 Epic Games 投訴 歐盟推動蘋果允許替代版 App Store

【Wired 硬塞】一場災難性太陽風暴,可能導致「網路末日」降臨

原文來自 Wired《A Bad Solar Storm Could Cause an 'Internet Apocalypse'》,作者 Lily Hay Newman。台灣康泰納仕集團授權提供,由 Linden Chen 翻譯並經 INSIDE 編審。
這幾十年來科學家們已經發現,極端的太陽風暴或是日冕物質拋射,可能會損害網,並導致長時間停電。包括全球供應鏈、運輸到網路和 GPS 都會受此影響。但到目前為止很少有人徹底研究過這種太陽能輻射到底實際上會對網路基礎設施會產深多少影響。新的研究顯示,這種故障特別是對於支撐全球網路正常運作的海底電纜來說,極可能帶來一場大災難。

在 2021 年 8 月 26 日的數據通訊大會上,加州大學爾灣分校電腦科學系助理教授桑吉塔・阿卜杜・喬蒂(Sangeetha Abdu Jyothi)發表「太陽能超級風暴:網路末日應對計劃」報告,告訴大家快速移動的磁化太陽粒子雲,可能會對全球網路造成多少傷害。阿卜杜・喬蒂的研究指出太陽風暴足以導致停電,而且就算電力可以在幾小時或幾天內恢復,網路依舊會大規模中斷。
但對於上述這種威脅,還是有些好消息。阿卜杜・喬蒂發現,即便在極大的太陽風暴中,本地和區域網路受損的風險仍很低,原因在於跨距短電纜通常會在地面連接,而光纖本身並不受到地磁電流的影響。但是,橫跨大陸的長海底電纜風險就大得多了。一場破壞各地長海底電纜的太陽風暴,即便可能讓當地基礎建設完好無缺,但也可能從源頭切斷各國間的聯繫,讓網路連接大量中斷。這就像是把供水總管切斷,也會讓公寓裡面沒水用。
「真正讓我思考到這一點的是,在疫情中,我們看到世界是多麼手足無措。目前沒有有效能應對這種情況的協議(指電腦間交換資訊的程式語言),網路韌性(指故障時維持可接受服務水準的網路)也是如此,」阿卜杜・喬蒂在演講前告訴《

Who else is using my memory - File System Cache analysis

See also our former articles:

Do not underestimate performance impacts of swapping on NUMA database systems
MariaDB and MySQL swap analysis
When we do analysis of MariaDB Database servers we also check the memory (RAM and Swap) available:

# free --kilo --wide
total used free shared buffers cache available
Mem: 16106252 4329952 703356 199008 307872 10765072 11042748
Swap: 31250428 528684 30721744
The values for buffers and especially for cache can be sometimes quite big. In this case they use about 10 GiB. So let us have a look what these things called buffers and cache are, using our valuable RAM... When we check the man pages of free we will find:

# man free
...
buffers Memory used by kernel buffers (Buffers in /proc/meminfo)
cache Memory used by the page cache and slabs (Cached and Slab in /proc/meminfo)
buff/cache Sum of buffers and cache
So let us check a more fine grained information in /proc/meminfo which is an interface to the kernel data structures:

# cat /proc/meminfo | grep -e ^Cached -e Slab -e Buffers
Buffers: 307872 kB
Cached: 10155156 kB
Slab: 609916 kB
Same values! Then let us have a look at the man pages of proc what we can find about these values:

# man proc
...
Buffers Relatively temporary storage for raw disk blocks that shouldn't get tremendously large (20MB or so).
Cached In-memory cache for files read from the disk (the page cache). Doesn't include SwapCached.
Slab In-kernel data structures cache.
So it looks like we have a raw I/O Cache (called Buffer Cache) and a File System I/O Cache (called Page Cache). So how does this work? What is a raw I/O? And is a Files System I/O cached once (Cached) or twice (Cached and Buffers)?

When we dig a bit deeper we can find that prior to Linux Kernels 2.4 the two Caches were distinct. So that was a waste of memory (RAM). It seems like today this is not the case any more [1], [2], [3]. And man pages are a bit out of date or at least not very precise?

Analysing the Linux Page Cache
A very good source when it comes to Linux Performance Tuning and Measuring is Brendan Gregg's Website. To measure Linux Page Cache Hit Ratio he provides a tool called cachestat which is part of the perf-tools collection on GitHub.

With cachestat we get a per second statistics of the Buffer Cache and the Page Cache (without Slabs), Cache Hits, Cache Misses, Dirty Buffer Entries in the Cache and a Cache Hit Ratio:

# sudo cachestat
Counting cache functions... Output every 1 seconds.
HITS MISSES DIRTIES RATIO BUFFERS_MB CACHE_MB
1419 8 0 99.4% 338 9406
1368 0 0 100.0% 338 9406
1391 0 0 100.0% 338 9406
8558 0 29 100.0% 338 9406
31870 0 163 100.0% 338 9406
1374 0 24 100.0% 338 9406
1388 0 0 100.0% 338 9406
1370 0 0 100.0% 338 9406
1388 0 0 100.0% 338 9406
Brendan Gregg also mentions a tool called pcstat (on GitHub) by Al Tobey which gets Page Cache Statistics for Files. Unfortunately I had some problems building it on my Ubuntu 16.04 with Go version 1.6. So I built it on an Ubuntu 18.04 (Go 1.10) and copied it over to to Ubuntu 16.04):

# export GOPATH=/tmp/
# cd $GOPATH
# go get golang.org/x/sys/unix
# go get github.com/tobert/pcstat/pcstat
# bin/pcstat $GOPATH/bin/pcstat
Then I tried pcstat out against a MariaDB 10.4 instance. In the output we can see how big the files are in bytes, how many pages of 4 kib this corresponds to, how many of these 4 kib pages are cached and the percentage of pages cached:

# pcstat /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib* /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test*
+------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------+
| Name | Size (bytes) | Pages | Cached | Percent |
|------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------|
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_buffer_pool | 14642 | 4 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibdata1 | 79691776 | 19456 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile0 | 268435456 | 65536 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile1 | 268435456 | 65536 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibtmp1 | 12582912 | 3072 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test.frm | 1097 | 1 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test.ibd | 13631488 | 3328 | 0 | 000.000 |
+------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------+
When we run pcstat over time with the famous watch command we can even see how the Page Cache is heating up:

# watch -d -n 1 'pcstat /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib* /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test* ; free -w'
+------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------+
| Name | Size (bytes) | Pages | Cached | Percent |
|------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------|
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_buffer_pool | 14642 | 4 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibdata1 | 79691776 | 19456 | 2416 | 012.418 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile0 | 268435456 | 65536 | 3165 | 004.829 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile1 | 268435456 | 65536 | 5890 | 008.987 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibtmp1 | 12582912 | 3072 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test.frm | 1097 | 1 | 1 | 100.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test.ibd | 13631488 | 3328 | 1164 | 034.976 |
+------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------+
total used free shared buffers cache available
Mem: 16106252 4329952 703356 199008 307872 10765072 11042748
Swap: 31250428 528684 30721744
An other tool which was discussed on Brendans Website was vmtouch - the Virtual Memory Toucher (on GitHub, Documentation). With vmtouch we can see for example how much of the directory /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data (datadir) is currently in cache:

# vmtouch -f /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data
Files: 503
Directories: 9
Resident Pages: 29356/231060 114M/902M 12.7%
Elapsed: 0.009668 seconds
Or more fine grained how much of InnoDB System Files are currently in memory:

# vmtouch -f -v /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib*
/home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_buffer_pool [ ] 0/4
/home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibdata1 [oOooooo ooooo ] 2416/19456
/home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile0 [o oOO] 3165/65536
/home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile1 [OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOo ] 23192/65536
/home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibtmp1 [ ] 0/3072

Files: 5
Directories: 0
Resident Pages: 28773/153604 112M/600M 18.7%
Elapsed: 0.005499 seconds
A further question to answer is: Can I see all files cached in the Page Cache? So it seem like this is not easily possible:

There is no efficient search mechanism for doing the reverse - getting a file name belonging to a data block would require reading all inodes and indirect blocks on the file system. If you need to know about every single file's blocks stored in the page cache, you would need to supply a list of all files on your file system(s) to fincore. But that again is likely to spoil the measurement as a large amount of data would be read traversing the directories and getting all inodes and indirect blocks - putting them into the page cache and evicting the very page cache data you were trying to examine. [5]
Also in this article we can read about the Linux File Tools (linux-ftools) by Google. It seems to be a bit more complicated to make them work. So I let it be.

How is the Page Cache related to MariaDB
After all this technical O/S discussion, how is Linux Page Cache related to your MariaDB Database? Your MariaDB Database caches Data and Indexes as well. For the InnoDB Storage Engine this is the InnoDB Buffer Pool and for the Aria Storage Engine this is the Aria Page Cache Buffer. So if your MariaDB Database caches pages and if your Linux O/S caches pages the probability is high they cache the same data twice and thus waste valuable RAM! Fortunately InnoDB is configurable in a way it does NOT cache InnoDB files in the Page

Travel Blog - Sailing Around The World Adventure With SV Delos

I bought SV Delos in May of 2008. At the time I had no intentions of documenting our life with YouTube Sailing Videos, but as sometimes happens one thing lead to another and here we are 45 countries, 70,000+ ocean miles, and over 200 YouTube Sailing Videos later. The decision to sell everything, buy a sailboat, and set off on a grand adventure was a defining point in my life.
My brother Brady (aka Señor Brady) joined Delos in Mexico for a month long sail to Tahiti. He decided to take all his savings, leave university behind and give 110% to the sailing life. Now 8 years later he is still aboard and has become my best friend. We’ve had more brotherly experiences together than any two man-boys have a right to.
I met the love of my life Karin (aka my Swedish Princess) on the other side of the Pacific in New Zealand, and asked her to go sailing for the weekend. Now 4 oceans and many hard sea miles later she has become an accomplished sailor and my wife! Alex Blue, joined Delos in South Africa and after Brady used some love potion to spark her interest, she has become a full time part of our floating family and production team! Together the 4 of us form the core of The Delos Crew.
A few years into the trip In Australia the cruising kitty ran dry, and we stopped sailing to work for a year. A fellow cruiser gave us the idea to document our travels with Youtube Sailing Videos so we purchased a small camcorder and started making our own homemade sailing movies about our experience. To date we’ve published over 200 videos on our scuba Diving and sailing adventures around this magnificent planet. The videos are all FREE. We’ve poured our heart and soul into them, and hope you enjoy watching as much as we did making them!
This website is dedicated to those of you that are considering a adventure of your own, and we hope you find it useful to pursue your own dreams, whether they be on land or at sea.

Fair Winds and much Love! Capt. Breeyawn, Kazza, Senor Brady and Blue!Sailing Vessel Delos…tell us about the boat.I remember the first time I walked down the dock and saw Delos sitting there. She just screamed out “Take me across an ocean!” . I was living and working in Seattle at the time and had been shopping for a solid, blue water cruising boat for over a year. I went to a bunch of boat shows drooling over everything, and even considered looking at these GraysOnline Aluminium Boats so I could say that I owned a boat of my very own, but then heard about the Amel boats from a cruising seminar. At that time there was only one Amel Super Maramu for sale on the West coast of the US. It just happened to be in Bellingham, a few hours drive north of Seattle almost on the Canadian border so I headed up to take a look.
When and where did you buy her?They say that when you find your boat you know it, and that’s exactly what it was like. I put in an offer and the sale closed a few months later in June of 2008. It should be noted at this time the notion of “starting a travel blog” would have been met with blank stares and incredulity.
“They say that when you find your boat you know it, and that’s exactly what it was like.”
Did you name her yourself? And if so what does the name mean?Delos was named by the previous owner and the history goes a little something like this. And I’m paraphrasing here to keep it really short:
Zeus was a bit of a player and was fooling around with Leto. In fact Zeus got her pregnant. Hera found out and banished Leto. This was a problem because apparently the children of gods can’t be born in the human domain. Zeus called in a favor from his bro Poseidon who used his trident to create a magical island named Delos, which was someplace between heaven and earth. Artemis and Apollo were then safely born on the Island of Delos.
I thought it was a pretty sweet story so kept the name!

How did this epic trip around the world start?Strangely with a trip to the library on a sunny Seattle Day. I was browsing the shelves and saw a book with a bright blue ocean on the cover. I can’t remember the exact title but it was something like “How to cross an ocean on your own boat.” What?!??! Was that even possible to do these days? I’d been sailing small boats around the lakes of Seattle for a few years but the thought of crossing an ocean blew me away. It then occurred to me that this was the ultimate way to travel! A way to mix adventure and self sufficiency with the art of sailing. And so the dream was born.
What were your initial plans?The initial plan was to sail to New Zealand. I spent the next 4 years dreaming, saving, planning, and selling all my worldly possessions. Delos departed Seattle in August of 2009 and we arrived in New Zealand in October of 2010. There was no way I could stop now so another plan was born to sail to Australia via Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon’s. Most of my savings had been spent by this time so we stretched the budget razor thin to make it happen.

DELOS, THE TRUE STAR OF THE SV DELOS TRAVEL BLOG, HAULED OUT FOR SURVEY IN SEATTLE

SHILESHOLE MARINE- SEATTLE
What hardships did you run into? How did your plans change after setting sail?We sailed on and off the anchor to save diesel and lived off fish and rice. It was an amazing experience to see just how cheaply you can live on the ocean. We made it happen and arrived in Australia some 7 months after departing New Zealand. The entire crew was really, really broke so we parked Delos for a while and moved to Melbourne, Australia. At this point the crew was myself, Brady, Josje, and Karin. We weren’t done sailing, just flat out of cash so we all worked to put some money in the cruising kitty. Since we’re not retired that’s what we do to follow our dreams- sail, run out of money, work, sail again. Delos was parked for just over a year in Bundaberg, Australia while we scraped together enough for another season.
In May of 2013 we left Bundaberg and began sailing up the east coast of Australia ending up in Darwin.. Our plan was to sail through Indonesia, The Philippines, Malaysia, and into Thailand (going from Suratthani to Koh Samui) We loved the Philippines so much our plan was blown to smithereens and we ended up spending 8 months there! We only just got into Malaysia and plan to continue sailing west. So basically an initial 18 month plan has stretched to 5 years with no end in sight.
“We loved the Philippines so much our plan was blown to smithereens and we ended up spending 8 months there!”
You’ve produced almost 100 travel blog videos, professionally put together and very entertaining. Where did you learn your skills in videography? Or how about travel blogging in general?Oh wow, thanks so much! We’re blushing over here! I remember being in Mexico and having a Tequila fueled conversation in Bara de Navidad with a guy I had just met at the bar. He was also traveling and we got to talking about sailing. He insisted that I walk out right then and there and buy a HD camcorder to film stuff non-stop as we crossed the Pacific. I thought at that point a travel blog could be a cool project to work on, so I purchased a pretty basic camcorder for about US$200 and started filming. We had no notions of trying to become “professional travel bloggers”.
“I purchased a pretty basic camcorder for about US$ 200 and started filming.”
At first we just goofed around making stuff with still shots, random video clips, and maybe a few subtitles. When we returned to Delos this season in Australia we wanted to step up our game a notch so we bought a Go Pro and little better HD Camcorder. We got a copy of Adobe Premiere and just went to town on the editing process. It’s been quite a learning experience but A LOT of fun.
Was starting the travel blog part of the plan from the outset? Would you be able to afford your trip around the world if you weren’t documenting your travels in weekly vlogs and blogs?
It wasn’t really on our radar at all, no. We had started a travel blog on Blogspot for the sole purpose of keeping friends and family up-to-speed on where we were, and as a general travelogue chronicling all of the amazing things we were experiencing. This went on for YEARS with no one but a very small group of friends and family reading the travel blog and looking at pictures.
It wasn’t until quite a while later, after we had started producing more travel vlog style sailing videos and posting them to YouTube that things started to get some traction. Slowly but surely we were seeing the views on the sailing videos climb from the 10s to 100s to 1,000s. After the travel blog started getting hundreds of thousands of hits, that was the first time we looked at each other and said “hey, I think we can do this!”
You’ve had quite a contrasting crew over the last months. Where did they all come from?That is the most unexpected surprise about this trip. I never could have guessed so many awesome people would sail on Delos. Since the trip began we’ve had 33 people from 9 different countries sail on Delos. Some have stayed for a only a week while others have stayed for a month or longer. Some are friends and family that have come to visit but most we’ve met while out sailing. Brady is my brother and he got onboard in Mexico to help with the Pacific crossing to Tahiti. He was going to stay a few months but ended up staying 5 years!
“Since the trip began we’ve had about 50 people from 14 different counties sail on

耶魯大學在 Twitter 實驗中證實:「憤怒與仇恨」言論將擴散更多社群負面情緒

消費者在空檔隨意滑手機突然被某個商品吸引目光,沒有花太多時間就立刻下單。因應消費者行為模式的轉變,Facebook 推出創新的「發現式商務」系統,建議零售商、品牌主在過去「勾引眼球」的基礎上,更要發展行銷「勾心術」。但要向消費者勾心,商家該怎麼做?
勾心第一招:擴大受眾接觸,推送客製內容讓廣告觸及效益最大化要勾住消費者,第一步就是要讓他們有機會與品牌「邂逅」。根據 Kantar 與 Facebook 合作打造的系列洞察報告,87% 全球消費者在 Instagram 查看產品資訊後,後續會造訪網頁或在線上購物,顯示消費者已習慣在社群媒體瀏覽商品並採取行動。

面對消費者行為的轉變,品牌可運用 Facebook 發現式商務,導入「個人化引擎」,依據消費者願意分享的興趣、偏好和行為,由機器學習進行分析,配對適合的商品及受眾。台灣科技品牌 ASUS 運用個人化引擎技術,在 Instagram 動態消息對受眾測試不同內容的「勾心」反應,購買意願成本降低 426 倍。其他品牌也會藉由導入 Facebook 像素及應用程式 SDK、轉換 API,針對不同消費者群體,提供他們喜愛及切身相關的行銷內容。
由於消費者越來越習慣一邊瀏覽內容、一邊購物,在消費者探索商家資訊的階段,品牌也能善用 Facebook「廣告刊登和轉換工具」,讓廣告內容在觸發受眾的時候,立刻達到勾心效應。
勾心第二招:縮短評估流程,優化介面、網紅合作加速購物考慮時間消費者對產品開始產生興趣後,下一步會進入「評估」環節。Kantar 研究數據顯示,53% 台灣消費者購買商品前會瀏覽多元且複雜的資訊,比較價格、便利、易購程度、及商品組合等;四分之一的台灣消費者會將 Facebook 作為購物資訊的參考平台,重要程度與比價網站幾乎相同。
品牌可透過強化兩大面向,加速消費者的評估時間:打造具吸引力的互動介面、善用廣告刊登和轉換工具。針對前者,Facebook 提供多樣化平台及廣告創意格式,幫助品牌打造自家特色的行動廣告,讓全螢幕限時動態廣告毫無痕跡穿插於 Facebook、Instagram、Messenger 限時動態,縮短消費者購買考慮期。
FM Shoes 時尚美鞋將不同創意進行分組測試,製作出有創意又跳脫品牌過往形象的素材。品牌特別打造具「互動元素」的原生內容,投放到 Instagram 限時動態,廣告投資報酬率獲得 11% 成長。
善用品牌內容置入廣告不失為勾心消費者的另一策略。根據 Kantar 報告, 71% 的台灣消費者在社群媒體至少追蹤一位網紅;過半消費者表示,他們曾買過網紅代言或背書的商品。Future Lab 為打入泰國市場,與在地網紅合作,在 Facebook 及 Instagram 建立品牌置入內容廣告,主打網紅在日常生活情境使用產

Chinese tech giants are snapping up gaming studios around the world

People play computer games at an internet cafe in Fuyang, China's Anhui province.
Lu Qijian | Visual China Group | Getty Images
LONDON – After decades of the U.S. and Japan dominating the gaming space, China's influence is growing as its tech giants snap up gaming studios around the world.
Now, some experts think video games could look a little different in the coming years as a result.

Questions are being asked about whether the Chinese owners of U.S. and European studios will try to influence the games they make, or indeed use them to promote Chinese values. It remains to be seen but subtle changes could happen in the coming years, according to some experts.
"Some of these values might be different from what many expect," British-Chinese writer Lu-Hai Liang told CNBC. "For example, Chinese female gamers are a massive market (500 million) and there have been many female-focused games and game studios that revel in this sector."
Thomas David, a semiconductor engineer in the U.S., told CNBC that he thinks gamers could start to see more titles where the "good guy" is Chinese and the "bad guy" is from the West, for example.
China's own gaming market is heavily regulated. It does not allow games that contain certain political views, gambling, gore, nudity and many other things to be released and sold in its home market. The movie industry is equally strict, with U.S. films having to be adapted before they can be released in China.
Exporting Chinese culture"This area — how China could use games to export its culture — is incredibly important and largely missed," Abishur Prakash, co-founder of the Center for Innovating the Future, told CNBC.

"China has several ways it can take its ideals to the world through games, and build a new kind of global power," said Prakash. "One way is by banning certain topics, like Taiwan or human rights, from being discussed," he said.
China could also establish "new centers within games that help showcase China's power," or use games to build its financial and commercial power, he said. "The next Chinese games might only allow users to purchase items in digital Yuan," said Prakash. "Or, the Chinese games might have Chinese platforms, like TikTok, embedded into them."

Others doubt that Chinese owners of Western gaming studios will try to change the games that get sold in the West.
"I would be very skeptical of something like that happening," Louise Shorthouse, a senior games analyst at Ampere Analysis, told CNBC.
Steven Bailey, principal analyst at Omida, told CNBC that "Chinese companies have had involvement in various Western game companies and content for quite some time, and understand that successfully making games for the West will not be supported by such changes."
He added: "Conversely, anyone releasing a game in China will need to adapt it for that market."
Tencent's sprawling investmentsTencent and NetEase have been snapping up stakes in gaming firms beyond China's borders for years with little opposition.
"Tencent keeps buying the #1 game in every niche in North America and Europe," wrote tech investor Rodolfo Rosini on Twitter in February. "This is important because games have cultural influence. And controlling the present and how reality is portrayed is very powerful."
"If Tencent were to buy a stake in every leading newspaper and TV company people would be up in arms, there would be political hearings etc," he added. "Instead they play the long game and they are buying the next generation's media properties without any competition."
For years, Hollywood has spread American values around the world and championed the country's military might. Now it could be China's turn to try to do the same, but through video games. However, while Hollywood often criticizes the U.S. and the actions of Washington D.C., China's tech giants would not be able to say a bad word against Beijing, which exercises great control over all of its domestic enterprises.
China has more gamers than any other country, making it a highly lucrative market for those that can get in. One of the reasons that U.S. and European gaming firms take investment from Chinese companies is that they're legally obliged to partner with a Chinese company before their game can be released in the country.
U.K.-headquartered Sumo became the latest gaming firm to sell to a Chinese tech behemoth on Monday, announcing a $1.26 billion deal with Tencent, which is the world's largest video game publisher.
Neither company immediately responded when CNBC asked how, or indeed if, Tencent will influence the games that Sumo works on.
But Tencent has traditionally taken a hands off approach to its investments and acquisitions, according to Daniel Ahmad, senior analyst at Niko Partners.
"The company could also be an invaluable partner for Tencent as it looks to push into the AAA game space itself with its own projects," said Ahmad.
"The deal would also help Sumo utilize Tencent's expertise in regard to games development and publishing within China," he added.  
"Chinese game studios are looking to grow overseas and while organic growth is one option, acquisition allows these companies to build a presence much faster and with local talent," said Ahmad.
Tencent also invested $150 million in Reddit in 2019, angering some Reddit users in the process who were concerned that the platform may experience more censorship. However, this does not appear to have happened in any significant way.

Rising Seas Are Coming For Big Tech Campuses. Who Will Pay To Protect Them?

When residents of Sunnyvale tuned into City Council meetings this spring, they heard discussions about a welcome topic in the Bay Area: additional housing.

Like in the rest of Silicon Valley, home values in the largely suburban city have skyrocketed due to a severe housing shortage. In May, the median home sale price in Sunnyvale was $1.8 million.

To help alleviate the shortage, Sunnyvale is setting its sights on a 1,300-acre triangle of land known as Moffett Park, sitting on the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. Today, it’s mostly offices, the low-rise buildings separated by wide parking lots.

Sunnyvale hopes to transform the Moffett Park neighborhood.
Marissa Leshnov for NPR

Sunnyvale is reimagining it as an “eco-innovation district,” potentially allowing up to 20,000 units of housing for the first time, including affordable housing, as well as 10.5 million square feet of office and commercial space. New developments would feature green space with biking trails and landscaping for native wildlife. The city is doing an environmental analysis of the plan over the next year.

“One of the most sustainable things you can do is put people where they work and put people where transit is, so this is a huge opportunity,” says Michelle King, principal planner with the city of Sunnyvale.

The vision isn’t just Sunnyvale’s. It’s shared by one of the largest landowners in Moffett Park: Google.

Over the past five years, Google has quietly acquired 75 parcels there, worth almost $3 billion, according to tax records. In 2017, the company wrote a letter to Sunnyvale officials, urging them to rezone Moffett Park to allow housing and higher-density development.

Now, Google has several large construction projects underway, including its Caribbean project, two buildings with sloping green roofs, separated by a landscaped flood control channel. The company says as it expands, it plans to build mixed-use development, as it’s doing around the Bay Area, which combines offices, green space and housing available for the public, including affordable housing.

“We’re incorporating sustainability into everything we do in our developments,” says Jeff Holzman, Google’s director of real estate district development for Sunnyvale. “And we’re doing it to support our employees but also the community and hopefully the environment.”

Some are asking: Why build here at all?
The future of Moffett Park also includes sea level rise, which is expected to inundate a large part of it. Just like nearby cities, Sunnyvale is protected by aging levees that don’t currently meet federal safety standards.

Without those levees, parts of Moffett Park would already be underwater because the land has sunk. Before the arrival of tech companies, Sunnyvale was farmland, home to vast rows of fruit trees. Farmers pumped groundwater for irrigation, causing the land level to drop.

Silicon Valley was once called “the Valley of Heart’s Delight,” home to orchards and farms.
San Jose Public Library, California Room, Historic Postcard Collection

That groundwater, sitting a few feet below the surface in some spots, is another potential source of flooding. As sea levels rise, saltwater doesn’t just flood onshore. It also encroaches underground, pushing up groundwater that’s already there, closer to the surface.

When it rains, shallower groundwater gives runoff nowhere to go.

“It’s like a sponge that’s already soaked and full of water,” says Kristina Hill, associate professor of environmental planning and urban design at the University of California, Berkeley. “So you can’t get any more water into it.”

As a result, rainstorms can cause flash flooding, even forcing water out of sewer drains onto surrounding land. Shallower groundwater can also spread chemicals or contaminants in the soil. Traditional shoreline protection, such as levees, can’t stop it since the water is moving underneath.

“If you spent billions of dollars to build levees and then behind the levee, the groundwater comes up anyway and people are flooded out any time that it rains, that’s going to be seen as a failure,” Hill says.

Faced with this information, some city residents are asking why construction would be permitted in low-lying areas.

“Moffett Park is already heavily developed and is an employment center for the city,” King, the city planner, responded in a November meeting. “The city has a great interest in making sure that Moffett Park is protected in the future and that the investment that’s been put into Moffett Park at this point remains where it is.”

Funding runs short to build a new levee
To protect Moffett Park, Sunnyvale is pinning its hopes on a new levee, like other Bay Area communities. But efforts have already hit hurdles.

The county’s water utility, Valley Water, is leading the South San Francisco Bay Shoreline Protection Project. It would protect 18 miles of shoreline, potentially costing almost $2 billion.

The first section of levee, now nearing construction in a neighboring city after 15 years of planning, has already raised flags about funding.

Congress granted $124 million in 2018 to build the project, but construction bids came back almost double what was expected. Valley Water is covering the shortfall, raising its share of the project’s cost to $269 million, vastly more than it had planned for.

Now, as the agency looks at building two more sections of levee, including Sunnyvale’s, it’s warning that it can’t do it alone. Localities will need to contribute.

“They need to share the responsibility with us,” says Richard Santos, a member of Valley Water’s board of directors. “Because we’re all in collaboration together, and they all receive the benefits. But they all don’t pay. You know, you wanna play, you gotta pay.”

JJ Harris/Techboogie/KQED

Which comes first: a levee or new buildings?
Sunnyvale is facing a timing problem, too: The levee could take several decades to build, leaving new homes and buildings unprotected against rising seas.

That’s giving some City Council members pause.

“Can I get comfortable with housing in the context of sea level rise?” says council member Russ Melton. “That’s where people live.”

Melton sees the need for more housing. But since there isn’t housing in Moffett Park now, the decision to allow it comes with considerable risk. Before voting, he needs assurances that the levee will be built.

“I’m going to need to see something that is plausible, that is funded, that has the political ability to get across the finish line before we make an irrevocable decision to allow housing in Moffett Park,” he says.

A feasible levee plan is years away. In the meantime, the city is weighing if it should have Google wait on its new construction, where thousands of people will live and work.

Google says allowing its projects to move forward would help ensure everyone is protected.

“I think that all of Sunnyvale needs to contribute to the solution, and I think we’re absolutely going to do our fair share and our part,” says Google’s Holzman.

Google is planning a major expansion beyond its Google Cloud campus in Sunnyvale.Marissa Leshnov for NPR

The company says it’s willing to contribute financially to build a levee if other Moffett Park businesses are asked to do the same.

“We kind of need projects like Moffett Park and others to move forward, so that it creates the economic ability to contribute into these solutions,” Holzman says. “The problem is going to exist whether we do more things in Moffett Park or not. And so it gives us a chance to help contribute to what needs to be a community solution.”

Experts say that economic argument can be problematic, because it incentivizes moving more people into harm’s way. Developing in risky areas can help pay for protections there, but what if those protections fail?

“Obviously, the challenge there is you have just put a lot of people at the forefront,” says Linda Shi, professor of city and regional planning at Cornell University. “If a storm surge supersedes what the sea wall there is built for, then those residents are the ones that are actually the first ones to be hit by that much water.”

Google, along with other Moffett Park property owners, is now considering building its own levee to provide flood protection sooner than a larger project would.

Cities have little incentive to say no
Around the country, city councils like Sunnyvale’s are on the front lines of decisions that are becoming increasingly risky in a hotter climate. With control over zoning and land use, they determine who is in the path of future disasters.

Still, cities face an inherent conflict. New development is crucial for their financial health. Responding to a flood disaster, on the other hand, is often paid for by the federal government.

“It’s always the incentive of local governments to build things that bring in sales tax or property tax revenue,” Lubell says, “because that is the main financial mechanism where local governments get their funding.”

That can make it diff