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捏造假新聞:馬格蘭攝影師的攝影密謀

馬格蘭攝影師喬納森.班迪克森(Jonas Bendiksen)在最近的訪談中自我揭露,今年九月他在法國指標性新聞攝影節「Visa pour l’image」投影展示的新作《韋萊斯之書》(The Book of Veles)中的照片與文章皆以造假技術完成,引發關於真實與倫理的熱議。

為了製作這件「報導」作品,班迪克森深入北馬其頓共和國的小城韋萊斯──2016年美國總統大選期間,這裡成為全球知名的假新聞工廠,當時註冊於此地的假新聞網站超過140個。班迪克森深受這個主題吸引,決定帶著相機記錄韋萊斯的居民生活與地景。

NORTH MACEDONIA. 2020. Veles. Aquapark on the outskirts of Veles © Jonas Bendiksen / Magnum Photos

NORTH MACEDONIA. 2020. Veles. Marina, who ran several fake news sites in 2016 © Jonas Bendiksen / Magnum Photos

NORTH MACEDONIA. 2020. Veles. On the hillsides above Veles © Jonas Bendiksen / Magnum Photos然而,直到班迪克森透過訪談揭開作品的「真相」後,眾人才發現被擺了一道。班迪克森確實二度踏訪韋萊斯,不過,他只拍攝無人的空間──公寓門口、房間、辦公室、建築屋頂、街角,而在拿起相機之前,他已先從網路上購買許多電腦生成的立體人物,並將照片與人物模型結合成栩栩如生的照片。攝影書中的文章則來自人工智慧,班迪克森找到「GPT-2」的可訓練式系統,餵給機器大量關於韋萊斯假新聞產業的報導,最後自動生成了一篇具有個人表達特色的五千字文章。

對於手法選擇與其背後緣由,班迪克森給予了詳細的說明。他發現,韋萊斯長久與「偽造」的關係密切。在宗教上,韋萊斯是前基督時期的神祇名稱之一,是鍾愛變形、混亂之神,擅長魔術與詐欺;1919年,一名俄國軍官在當地發現了以古斯拉夫文字寫就的木頭書簡「韋萊斯之書」,儘管數年後由一名學者破譯,這份經文的真偽至今尚無定論;2016年的假新聞熱,當地正值青年失業率高升,上千名年輕人因而投入網軍、內容農場、誤導訊息的生產鏈,獲取廣告流量暴利。這些元素彼此呼應,並且指向了隨著時代不斷轉變的偽造。

班迪克森的《韋萊斯之書》於今年四月發行時,未提及作品的製作過程,儘管攝影書的銷售相當亮眼,他也盡量保持低調,回拒了幾家雜誌的專題邀約。他自承,讓這個秘密保持一段時間,是為了測試新聞攝影同業對於真假內容的敏銳程度,而非意圖欺騙廣大讀者。他相當驚訝竟然沒有任何人出面質疑此書的內容,反而收到不少讚美,甚至有人稱讚他的文章。「在整個計畫裡,我只是試著問這些新科技代表了什麼,而且多麼容易被拿來『作惡』。我們怎麼理解攝影是某些事物的紀錄?我們有多容易被偽造的東西牽著鼻子走?」

NORTH MACEDONIA. 2020. Veles. Apartment building © Jonas Bendiksen / Magnum Photos班迪克森透過先前購入的名為「克洛伊.米斯金」(Chloe Miskin)的假帳號,陸續和600名攝影從業人員成為社群媒體好友,以此混入攝影界。在九月初Visa pour l’image發表作品之後,他主動丟出線索,開始註冊更多假帳號,並以網軍方式抨擊自己的作品花錢請人擺拍。撇開班迪克森的伎倆,這場以「造假」為主軸的密謀,最終正式結束於馬格蘭通訊社刊出訪談。

為此,Visa pour l’image總監尚.法蘭索瓦.雷霍伊(Jean François Leroy)已向當時參與攝影節的觀眾道歉,希望新聞攝影講求的信任能夠維繫下去;再者,班迪克森的作品觸碰了迫切的問題,假新聞把關在未來確實會面臨越來越多挑戰。儘管如此,雷霍伊強調,對社群媒體使用者、觀眾與攝影節團隊而言,攝影師這次的行動究竟在多大程度上越界形成欺瞞,值得更進一步的討論。

文 | 閻望雲
圖 | Magnum Photos提供
發佈日期 | 2021年10月11日

China again blocks Wikimedia Foundation’s accreditation to World Intellectual Property Organization

5 October 2021, San Francisco, CA, USA — China today blocked the Wikimedia Foundation’s bid for observer status at the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for the second time after the Foundation’s initial application in 2020. 

WIPO is the United Nations (UN) organization that develops international treaties on copyright, patents, trademarks and related issues. China was again the only country to object to the accreditation of the Wikimedia Foundation as an official observer. The Foundation will reapply for official observer status in 2022, but it will only be admitted by WIPO if China decides to lift its blockade.

WIPO’s work, which shapes international rules that affect the sharing of free knowledge, impacts Wikipedia’s ability to provide hundreds of millions of people with information in their own languages. “The Wikimedia Foundation’s absence from these meetings deprives our communities of an opportunity to participate in this process,” says Amanda Keton, General Counsel of the Wikimedia Foundation. 

As in 2020, China’s statement falsely suggested that the Wikimedia Foundation was spreading disinformation via the independent, volunteer-led Wikimedia Taiwan chapter. The United States and the group of industrialized countries at WIPO — which also includes many European Union member states, Australia, Canada, the Holy See, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom — expressed their support for the Foundation’s application. Since WIPO is generally run by consensus, any one country may veto accreditation requests by non-governmental organizations. 

A wide range of international and non-profit organizations as well as private companies are official observers of WIPO proceedings and debates. These outside groups offer technical expertise, on-the-ground experience, and diversity of opinions to help WIPO carry out its global mandate. Many of these organizations have members, partners, or affiliates in Taiwan. 

“The Wikimedia Foundation operates Wikipedia, one of the most popular sources of information for people around the world. The Foundation’s exclusion sets a worrying precedent for other organizations – nonprofits and for-profits – that are committed to promoting access to information, culture, and education,” adds Keton. “We renew our call to WIPO members, including China, to approve our application. The international community must ensure meaningful civil society participation in UN fora.”

The Wikimedia Foundation provides the essential infrastructure for free knowledge and advocates for a world in which every single human being can freely share in the sum of all knowledge.

Facebook 吹哨者現身:前員工 Frances Haugen 爆臉書選後就放任假新聞流竄!

受疫情影響,金管會於今年 6 月宣佈視訊投保暫行方案,確保壽險業者各項服務及業務不因疫情影響中斷;截至7月底止,已有不少知名金融保險業者獲准試辦遠距投保業務項目。
目前小規模試辦的結果,卻因為市面上欠缺可整合視訊會議及 eKYC(Electronic Know Your Customer)的解決方案,業者大多得透過整合多套不同服務,例如:採用 Teams、Webex 或  LINE 等工具進行視訊會議,或保險簽單需事先提供予客戶列印、簽名,又或者是透過第三方的方式錄影(如透過手機或攝影機翻拍)等,導致使用者體驗不佳。此外,這樣的做法還是仰賴保險業務員以肉眼比對投保人及身分證,仍有冒用風險。

對於未來大幅度開放遠距投保,勢必需要更成熟、高度整合的解決方案。
訊連科技推出 FaceMe® Fintech 解決方案,解決遠距投保的身份認證難題以保險、金融應用來說,目前主流的生物辨識 eKYC 技術主要包含:人臉辨識、指紋辨識、虹膜辨識等。其中,人臉辨識在過去數年來,因為深度學習技術導入,辨識度大幅提高,加上辨識速度快、無須專用硬體(可使用裝置上的相機)即可進行遠端辨識,大大降低接觸風險,因此也在這幾年成為生物辨識技術的主流。
只不過,目前全球的人臉辨識技術大多為中國廠商,在台灣要落地應用,恐怕會有資安疑慮,無法安心採用。
Photo Credit:訊連科技/訊連科技推出人臉辨識產品 FaceMe® 並可作為一系列金融科技解決方案。值得注意的是,過去以威力導演、PowerDVD 等軟體知名的「訊連科技」,近年來也跨足 eKYC、AI 領域,擴充人臉辨識產品,推出「FaceMe® AI 人臉辨識引擎」,提供高達 99.7% 準確度的人臉辨識服務,並於全球知名的 NIST(美國國家標準暨技術研究院)之 FRVT 人臉辨識基準測試中,於 1:1(人證比對)及 1:N(身份認證)項目排行全球第六,除了是台灣排名最佳的廠商之外,也是該項測試排除中、俄廠商的全球第一。這樣的技術,也是訊連科技針對金融保險業者的 FaceMe® Fintech 解決方案中,重要的核心之一。
辨明真偽!FaceMe® Fintech 提供整合性的金融科技解決方案談到金融科技,除了資安、金流系統之外,在講求無遠弗屆的遠端服務時,辨明真偽更是信任基礎的第一步。因此,訊連科技的 FaceMe® Fintech 以精準辨識的技術為核心,為金融、保險應用提供一系列解決方案,包含:
eKYC SDK 提供人臉辨識、身分證真偽辨識、活體辨識、人證比對等功能。視訊會議 SDK 提供金融保險業者於公有雲或私有雲架設視訊會議、進行錄音錄影、畫面分享,業務員能透過畫面分享進行保單說明。以公有雲來說,FaceMe® Fintech 的視訊會議採用位於台灣機房的 GCP (Google Cloud Platform),即可符合資料落地的需求。VIDEO其中,視訊會議 SDK 功能完整,有諸多優勢。除了可於視訊會議過程中進行錄音錄影(符合金管會要求)、業務員能透過畫面分享進行保單說明之外,還有許多身分驗證服務,可導入包含:
身分證真偽辨識:透過 AI 辨識身分證是否為真,避免業務員肉眼誤判。此外,若有二階段認證需求,也提供聲紋比對功能。活體辨識:避免透過相片或影片假冒身分。FaceMe® 的活體辨識可提供透過一般行動裝置之 2D 鏡頭、或是透過 3D 鏡頭(如 iPad Pro、iPhone X 等)進行活體辨識。人證比對及核身:透過人臉辨識,比對證件照及鏡頭前的投保人是否為同一人,減少業務員肉眼誤判。OCR 光學字元辨識: 身分確認後,將證件資訊帶入保單,如姓名、身分證號、換發日期等,省去打字麻煩,加快投保速度。Photo Credit:訊連科技/FaceMe® 可跨平台建置於 Windows、Linux、Android 與 iOS 等作業系統,亦可提供 HTTP API ,進行網銀服務串接。開發者可在各種終端設備或雲端服務中快速導入人臉辨識功能,進行身份辨識、身分驗證等多種應用。VIDEO不限

韓國裁定 Google 壟斷,開出 50 億元罰單!

 本篇來自合作媒體中央社,INSIDE 經授權轉載。
韓國反壟斷監管單位 14 日裁定 Google 濫用其手機作業系統和 App 市場的主導地位,並開罰將近 1.8 億美元(約新台幣 50 億元),這是全球監管單位對科技巨頭壟斷行為祭出的最新裁罰。
韓國國會數週前通過修法,禁止蘋果(Apple)與 Google 強制 App 開發者使用兩大科技巨頭的支付系統,實際上等同宣告它們的 App Store 和 Play Store 的壟斷行為屬非法。
美國主要遊戲開發商 Epic Games 去年繞過 Apple 的系統,在旗下熱門遊戲「要塞英雄」(Fortnite) App 內建直接付費管道,隨後遊戲遭到蘋果 App Store 下架。 Epic 為此告上法院,美國法官上週裁定蘋果必須放鬆管制。
蘋果與 Google 主宰韓國 App 市場。韓國不僅是世界第 12 大經濟體,也以科技實力卓越著稱。
韓國公平交易委員會(KFTC)從 2016 年起針對 Google 展開調查,據稱 Google 妨礙當地智慧手機業者如三星電子等,打造客製化安卓作業系統(Android OS)。
韓國公平交易委員會表示, Google 透過反片段化協議(Anti-Fragmentation Agreement),妨礙智慧型手機業者在手機上安裝改裝過安卓系統,又被稱為安卓分支(Android forks)。
韓國公平交易委員會在聲明中稱:「由於這種限制,手機開發商沒辦法推出提供新服務的創新產品。 Google 就可以鞏固在手機作業系統市場的主宰地位。」
責任編輯:蜜雅
核稿編輯:Anny
延伸閱讀:
南韓擬禁止蘋果、Google 向軟體商抽佣 創全球首例再一槍!美國 36 州針對 Android Play Store 對 Google 發動大型反壟斷訴訟蘋果為美國開發者集體訴訟讓步 App Store 提出七大協議和解

區塊鏈與虛擬貨幣法律專題(十四) Howey Test於台灣司法實務上運用與細緻化的標準 | 中銀律師事務所 ZHONG YIN LAW FIRM

區塊鏈與虛擬貨幣法律專題(十四) Howey Test於台灣司法實務上運用與細緻化的標準
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區塊鏈與虛擬貨幣法律專題(十四) Howey Test於台灣司法實務上運用與細緻化的標準

Apple 生態系超震撼彈!美法院判決 iOS App 可以跳過「蘋果税」

各位還記得從去年 8 月開始,《要塞英雄》、Unreal Engine 開發商 Epic Games 因「蘋果税」問題,向美國加州法院提吿蘋果涉嫌壟斷嗎?現在判決出爐,法院裁定其他開發商可以繞過「蘋果税」了!
更精確的說,美國加州法院裁定蘋果不得限制、禁止其他開發商們使用自己的購買管道。原文是這麼寫的:
permanently restrained and enjoined from prohibiting developers from including in their apps and their metadata buttons, external links, or other calls to action that direct customers to purchasing mechanisms, in addition to In-App Purchasing and communicating with customers through points of contact obtained voluntarily from customers through account registration within the app.
除非上級法院另有裁決,否則這項禁令將在 12 月 9 日生效。某種程度上這已經是 Epic Games 的重大勝利,但距離「完全勝利」卻還有一大段距離,為什麼呢?
因為根據另一份判決,法院判定 Epic Games 在《要塞英雄》中使用自己的非蘋果購買管道這項行為違反了跟蘋果之間的合約,所以必須要向蘋果支付這段期間經過 iOS 產生的 30% 收入,預計將付超過 350 萬美元。
不過,或許對蘋果更重要的是這項判決:事前 Epic Games 曾提吿蘋果是一間「涉嫌壟斷」的公司,但法院表示無論根據聯邦或州層級反壟斷法,法院都無法得出蘋果是不是真有涉嫌壟斷的結論;法官表示,「不能因蘋果享有超過 55% 市場占比和極高的利潤,就指出蘋果真有進行壟斷。」
核稿編輯:李柏鋒
延伸閱讀:
韓國通過修法!禁止蘋果、Google 壟斷行動支付拜登矛頭對準科技巨頭,Google 宿敵獲提名帶領司法部反壟斷為解決 Epic Games 投訴 歐盟推動蘋果允許替代版 App Store

【Wired 硬塞】一場災難性太陽風暴,可能導致「網路末日」降臨

原文來自 Wired《A Bad Solar Storm Could Cause an 'Internet Apocalypse'》,作者 Lily Hay Newman。台灣康泰納仕集團授權提供,由 Linden Chen 翻譯並經 INSIDE 編審。
這幾十年來科學家們已經發現,極端的太陽風暴或是日冕物質拋射,可能會損害網,並導致長時間停電。包括全球供應鏈、運輸到網路和 GPS 都會受此影響。但到目前為止很少有人徹底研究過這種太陽能輻射到底實際上會對網路基礎設施會產深多少影響。新的研究顯示,這種故障特別是對於支撐全球網路正常運作的海底電纜來說,極可能帶來一場大災難。

在 2021 年 8 月 26 日的數據通訊大會上,加州大學爾灣分校電腦科學系助理教授桑吉塔・阿卜杜・喬蒂(Sangeetha Abdu Jyothi)發表「太陽能超級風暴:網路末日應對計劃」報告,告訴大家快速移動的磁化太陽粒子雲,可能會對全球網路造成多少傷害。阿卜杜・喬蒂的研究指出太陽風暴足以導致停電,而且就算電力可以在幾小時或幾天內恢復,網路依舊會大規模中斷。
但對於上述這種威脅,還是有些好消息。阿卜杜・喬蒂發現,即便在極大的太陽風暴中,本地和區域網路受損的風險仍很低,原因在於跨距短電纜通常會在地面連接,而光纖本身並不受到地磁電流的影響。但是,橫跨大陸的長海底電纜風險就大得多了。一場破壞各地長海底電纜的太陽風暴,即便可能讓當地基礎建設完好無缺,但也可能從源頭切斷各國間的聯繫,讓網路連接大量中斷。這就像是把供水總管切斷,也會讓公寓裡面沒水用。
「真正讓我思考到這一點的是,在疫情中,我們看到世界是多麼手足無措。目前沒有有效能應對這種情況的協議(指電腦間交換資訊的程式語言),網路韌性(指故障時維持可接受服務水準的網路)也是如此,」阿卜杜・喬蒂在演講前告訴《

Who else is using my memory - File System Cache analysis

See also our former articles:

Do not underestimate performance impacts of swapping on NUMA database systems
MariaDB and MySQL swap analysis
When we do analysis of MariaDB Database servers we also check the memory (RAM and Swap) available:

# free --kilo --wide
total used free shared buffers cache available
Mem: 16106252 4329952 703356 199008 307872 10765072 11042748
Swap: 31250428 528684 30721744
The values for buffers and especially for cache can be sometimes quite big. In this case they use about 10 GiB. So let us have a look what these things called buffers and cache are, using our valuable RAM... When we check the man pages of free we will find:

# man free
...
buffers Memory used by kernel buffers (Buffers in /proc/meminfo)
cache Memory used by the page cache and slabs (Cached and Slab in /proc/meminfo)
buff/cache Sum of buffers and cache
So let us check a more fine grained information in /proc/meminfo which is an interface to the kernel data structures:

# cat /proc/meminfo | grep -e ^Cached -e Slab -e Buffers
Buffers: 307872 kB
Cached: 10155156 kB
Slab: 609916 kB
Same values! Then let us have a look at the man pages of proc what we can find about these values:

# man proc
...
Buffers Relatively temporary storage for raw disk blocks that shouldn't get tremendously large (20MB or so).
Cached In-memory cache for files read from the disk (the page cache). Doesn't include SwapCached.
Slab In-kernel data structures cache.
So it looks like we have a raw I/O Cache (called Buffer Cache) and a File System I/O Cache (called Page Cache). So how does this work? What is a raw I/O? And is a Files System I/O cached once (Cached) or twice (Cached and Buffers)?

When we dig a bit deeper we can find that prior to Linux Kernels 2.4 the two Caches were distinct. So that was a waste of memory (RAM). It seems like today this is not the case any more [1], [2], [3]. And man pages are a bit out of date or at least not very precise?

Analysing the Linux Page Cache
A very good source when it comes to Linux Performance Tuning and Measuring is Brendan Gregg's Website. To measure Linux Page Cache Hit Ratio he provides a tool called cachestat which is part of the perf-tools collection on GitHub.

With cachestat we get a per second statistics of the Buffer Cache and the Page Cache (without Slabs), Cache Hits, Cache Misses, Dirty Buffer Entries in the Cache and a Cache Hit Ratio:

# sudo cachestat
Counting cache functions... Output every 1 seconds.
HITS MISSES DIRTIES RATIO BUFFERS_MB CACHE_MB
1419 8 0 99.4% 338 9406
1368 0 0 100.0% 338 9406
1391 0 0 100.0% 338 9406
8558 0 29 100.0% 338 9406
31870 0 163 100.0% 338 9406
1374 0 24 100.0% 338 9406
1388 0 0 100.0% 338 9406
1370 0 0 100.0% 338 9406
1388 0 0 100.0% 338 9406
Brendan Gregg also mentions a tool called pcstat (on GitHub) by Al Tobey which gets Page Cache Statistics for Files. Unfortunately I had some problems building it on my Ubuntu 16.04 with Go version 1.6. So I built it on an Ubuntu 18.04 (Go 1.10) and copied it over to to Ubuntu 16.04):

# export GOPATH=/tmp/
# cd $GOPATH
# go get golang.org/x/sys/unix
# go get github.com/tobert/pcstat/pcstat
# bin/pcstat $GOPATH/bin/pcstat
Then I tried pcstat out against a MariaDB 10.4 instance. In the output we can see how big the files are in bytes, how many pages of 4 kib this corresponds to, how many of these 4 kib pages are cached and the percentage of pages cached:

# pcstat /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib* /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test*
+------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------+
| Name | Size (bytes) | Pages | Cached | Percent |
|------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------|
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_buffer_pool | 14642 | 4 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibdata1 | 79691776 | 19456 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile0 | 268435456 | 65536 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile1 | 268435456 | 65536 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibtmp1 | 12582912 | 3072 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test.frm | 1097 | 1 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test.ibd | 13631488 | 3328 | 0 | 000.000 |
+------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------+
When we run pcstat over time with the famous watch command we can even see how the Page Cache is heating up:

# watch -d -n 1 'pcstat /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib* /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test* ; free -w'
+------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------+
| Name | Size (bytes) | Pages | Cached | Percent |
|------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------|
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_buffer_pool | 14642 | 4 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibdata1 | 79691776 | 19456 | 2416 | 012.418 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile0 | 268435456 | 65536 | 3165 | 004.829 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile1 | 268435456 | 65536 | 5890 | 008.987 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibtmp1 | 12582912 | 3072 | 0 | 000.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test.frm | 1097 | 1 | 1 | 100.000 |
| /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/test/test.ibd | 13631488 | 3328 | 1164 | 034.976 |
+------------------------------------------------------+----------------+------------+-----------+---------+
total used free shared buffers cache available
Mem: 16106252 4329952 703356 199008 307872 10765072 11042748
Swap: 31250428 528684 30721744
An other tool which was discussed on Brendans Website was vmtouch - the Virtual Memory Toucher (on GitHub, Documentation). With vmtouch we can see for example how much of the directory /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data (datadir) is currently in cache:

# vmtouch -f /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data
Files: 503
Directories: 9
Resident Pages: 29356/231060 114M/902M 12.7%
Elapsed: 0.009668 seconds
Or more fine grained how much of InnoDB System Files are currently in memory:

# vmtouch -f -v /home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib*
/home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_buffer_pool [ ] 0/4
/home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibdata1 [oOooooo ooooo ] 2416/19456
/home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile0 [o oOO] 3165/65536
/home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ib_logfile1 [OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOo ] 23192/65536
/home/mysql/database/mariadb-104/data/ibtmp1 [ ] 0/3072

Files: 5
Directories: 0
Resident Pages: 28773/153604 112M/600M 18.7%
Elapsed: 0.005499 seconds
A further question to answer is: Can I see all files cached in the Page Cache? So it seem like this is not easily possible:

There is no efficient search mechanism for doing the reverse - getting a file name belonging to a data block would require reading all inodes and indirect blocks on the file system. If you need to know about every single file's blocks stored in the page cache, you would need to supply a list of all files on your file system(s) to fincore. But that again is likely to spoil the measurement as a large amount of data would be read traversing the directories and getting all inodes and indirect blocks - putting them into the page cache and evicting the very page cache data you were trying to examine. [5]
Also in this article we can read about the Linux File Tools (linux-ftools) by Google. It seems to be a bit more complicated to make them work. So I let it be.

How is the Page Cache related to MariaDB
After all this technical O/S discussion, how is Linux Page Cache related to your MariaDB Database? Your MariaDB Database caches Data and Indexes as well. For the InnoDB Storage Engine this is the InnoDB Buffer Pool and for the Aria Storage Engine this is the Aria Page Cache Buffer. So if your MariaDB Database caches pages and if your Linux O/S caches pages the probability is high they cache the same data twice and thus waste valuable RAM! Fortunately InnoDB is configurable in a way it does NOT cache InnoDB files in the Page

Travel Blog - Sailing Around The World Adventure With SV Delos

I bought SV Delos in May of 2008. At the time I had no intentions of documenting our life with YouTube Sailing Videos, but as sometimes happens one thing lead to another and here we are 45 countries, 70,000+ ocean miles, and over 200 YouTube Sailing Videos later. The decision to sell everything, buy a sailboat, and set off on a grand adventure was a defining point in my life.
My brother Brady (aka Señor Brady) joined Delos in Mexico for a month long sail to Tahiti. He decided to take all his savings, leave university behind and give 110% to the sailing life. Now 8 years later he is still aboard and has become my best friend. We’ve had more brotherly experiences together than any two man-boys have a right to.
I met the love of my life Karin (aka my Swedish Princess) on the other side of the Pacific in New Zealand, and asked her to go sailing for the weekend. Now 4 oceans and many hard sea miles later she has become an accomplished sailor and my wife! Alex Blue, joined Delos in South Africa and after Brady used some love potion to spark her interest, she has become a full time part of our floating family and production team! Together the 4 of us form the core of The Delos Crew.
A few years into the trip In Australia the cruising kitty ran dry, and we stopped sailing to work for a year. A fellow cruiser gave us the idea to document our travels with Youtube Sailing Videos so we purchased a small camcorder and started making our own homemade sailing movies about our experience. To date we’ve published over 200 videos on our scuba Diving and sailing adventures around this magnificent planet. The videos are all FREE. We’ve poured our heart and soul into them, and hope you enjoy watching as much as we did making them!
This website is dedicated to those of you that are considering a adventure of your own, and we hope you find it useful to pursue your own dreams, whether they be on land or at sea.

Fair Winds and much Love! Capt. Breeyawn, Kazza, Senor Brady and Blue!Sailing Vessel Delos…tell us about the boat.I remember the first time I walked down the dock and saw Delos sitting there. She just screamed out “Take me across an ocean!” . I was living and working in Seattle at the time and had been shopping for a solid, blue water cruising boat for over a year. I went to a bunch of boat shows drooling over everything, and even considered looking at these GraysOnline Aluminium Boats so I could say that I owned a boat of my very own, but then heard about the Amel boats from a cruising seminar. At that time there was only one Amel Super Maramu for sale on the West coast of the US. It just happened to be in Bellingham, a few hours drive north of Seattle almost on the Canadian border so I headed up to take a look.
When and where did you buy her?They say that when you find your boat you know it, and that’s exactly what it was like. I put in an offer and the sale closed a few months later in June of 2008. It should be noted at this time the notion of “starting a travel blog” would have been met with blank stares and incredulity.
“They say that when you find your boat you know it, and that’s exactly what it was like.”
Did you name her yourself? And if so what does the name mean?Delos was named by the previous owner and the history goes a little something like this. And I’m paraphrasing here to keep it really short:
Zeus was a bit of a player and was fooling around with Leto. In fact Zeus got her pregnant. Hera found out and banished Leto. This was a problem because apparently the children of gods can’t be born in the human domain. Zeus called in a favor from his bro Poseidon who used his trident to create a magical island named Delos, which was someplace between heaven and earth. Artemis and Apollo were then safely born on the Island of Delos.
I thought it was a pretty sweet story so kept the name!

How did this epic trip around the world start?Strangely with a trip to the library on a sunny Seattle Day. I was browsing the shelves and saw a book with a bright blue ocean on the cover. I can’t remember the exact title but it was something like “How to cross an ocean on your own boat.” What?!??! Was that even possible to do these days? I’d been sailing small boats around the lakes of Seattle for a few years but the thought of crossing an ocean blew me away. It then occurred to me that this was the ultimate way to travel! A way to mix adventure and self sufficiency with the art of sailing. And so the dream was born.
What were your initial plans?The initial plan was to sail to New Zealand. I spent the next 4 years dreaming, saving, planning, and selling all my worldly possessions. Delos departed Seattle in August of 2009 and we arrived in New Zealand in October of 2010. There was no way I could stop now so another plan was born to sail to Australia via Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon’s. Most of my savings had been spent by this time so we stretched the budget razor thin to make it happen.

DELOS, THE TRUE STAR OF THE SV DELOS TRAVEL BLOG, HAULED OUT FOR SURVEY IN SEATTLE

SHILESHOLE MARINE- SEATTLE
What hardships did you run into? How did your plans change after setting sail?We sailed on and off the anchor to save diesel and lived off fish and rice. It was an amazing experience to see just how cheaply you can live on the ocean. We made it happen and arrived in Australia some 7 months after departing New Zealand. The entire crew was really, really broke so we parked Delos for a while and moved to Melbourne, Australia. At this point the crew was myself, Brady, Josje, and Karin. We weren’t done sailing, just flat out of cash so we all worked to put some money in the cruising kitty. Since we’re not retired that’s what we do to follow our dreams- sail, run out of money, work, sail again. Delos was parked for just over a year in Bundaberg, Australia while we scraped together enough for another season.
In May of 2013 we left Bundaberg and began sailing up the east coast of Australia ending up in Darwin.. Our plan was to sail through Indonesia, The Philippines, Malaysia, and into Thailand (going from Suratthani to Koh Samui) We loved the Philippines so much our plan was blown to smithereens and we ended up spending 8 months there! We only just got into Malaysia and plan to continue sailing west. So basically an initial 18 month plan has stretched to 5 years with no end in sight.
“We loved the Philippines so much our plan was blown to smithereens and we ended up spending 8 months there!”
You’ve produced almost 100 travel blog videos, professionally put together and very entertaining. Where did you learn your skills in videography? Or how about travel blogging in general?Oh wow, thanks so much! We’re blushing over here! I remember being in Mexico and having a Tequila fueled conversation in Bara de Navidad with a guy I had just met at the bar. He was also traveling and we got to talking about sailing. He insisted that I walk out right then and there and buy a HD camcorder to film stuff non-stop as we crossed the Pacific. I thought at that point a travel blog could be a cool project to work on, so I purchased a pretty basic camcorder for about US$200 and started filming. We had no notions of trying to become “professional travel bloggers”.
“I purchased a pretty basic camcorder for about US$ 200 and started filming.”
At first we just goofed around making stuff with still shots, random video clips, and maybe a few subtitles. When we returned to Delos this season in Australia we wanted to step up our game a notch so we bought a Go Pro and little better HD Camcorder. We got a copy of Adobe Premiere and just went to town on the editing process. It’s been quite a learning experience but A LOT of fun.
Was starting the travel blog part of the plan from the outset? Would you be able to afford your trip around the world if you weren’t documenting your travels in weekly vlogs and blogs?
It wasn’t really on our radar at all, no. We had started a travel blog on Blogspot for the sole purpose of keeping friends and family up-to-speed on where we were, and as a general travelogue chronicling all of the amazing things we were experiencing. This went on for YEARS with no one but a very small group of friends and family reading the travel blog and looking at pictures.
It wasn’t until quite a while later, after we had started producing more travel vlog style sailing videos and posting them to YouTube that things started to get some traction. Slowly but surely we were seeing the views on the sailing videos climb from the 10s to 100s to 1,000s. After the travel blog started getting hundreds of thousands of hits, that was the first time we looked at each other and said “hey, I think we can do this!”
You’ve had quite a contrasting crew over the last months. Where did they all come from?That is the most unexpected surprise about this trip. I never could have guessed so many awesome people would sail on Delos. Since the trip began we’ve had 33 people from 9 different countries sail on Delos. Some have stayed for a only a week while others have stayed for a month or longer. Some are friends and family that have come to visit but most we’ve met while out sailing. Brady is my brother and he got onboard in Mexico to help with the Pacific crossing to Tahiti. He was going to stay a few months but ended up staying 5 years!
“Since the trip began we’ve had about 50 people from 14 different counties sail on

耶魯大學在 Twitter 實驗中證實:「憤怒與仇恨」言論將擴散更多社群負面情緒

消費者在空檔隨意滑手機突然被某個商品吸引目光,沒有花太多時間就立刻下單。因應消費者行為模式的轉變,Facebook 推出創新的「發現式商務」系統,建議零售商、品牌主在過去「勾引眼球」的基礎上,更要發展行銷「勾心術」。但要向消費者勾心,商家該怎麼做?
勾心第一招:擴大受眾接觸,推送客製內容讓廣告觸及效益最大化要勾住消費者,第一步就是要讓他們有機會與品牌「邂逅」。根據 Kantar 與 Facebook 合作打造的系列洞察報告,87% 全球消費者在 Instagram 查看產品資訊後,後續會造訪網頁或在線上購物,顯示消費者已習慣在社群媒體瀏覽商品並採取行動。

面對消費者行為的轉變,品牌可運用 Facebook 發現式商務,導入「個人化引擎」,依據消費者願意分享的興趣、偏好和行為,由機器學習進行分析,配對適合的商品及受眾。台灣科技品牌 ASUS 運用個人化引擎技術,在 Instagram 動態消息對受眾測試不同內容的「勾心」反應,購買意願成本降低 426 倍。其他品牌也會藉由導入 Facebook 像素及應用程式 SDK、轉換 API,針對不同消費者群體,提供他們喜愛及切身相關的行銷內容。
由於消費者越來越習慣一邊瀏覽內容、一邊購物,在消費者探索商家資訊的階段,品牌也能善用 Facebook「廣告刊登和轉換工具」,讓廣告內容在觸發受眾的時候,立刻達到勾心效應。
勾心第二招:縮短評估流程,優化介面、網紅合作加速購物考慮時間消費者對產品開始產生興趣後,下一步會進入「評估」環節。Kantar 研究數據顯示,53% 台灣消費者購買商品前會瀏覽多元且複雜的資訊,比較價格、便利、易購程度、及商品組合等;四分之一的台灣消費者會將 Facebook 作為購物資訊的參考平台,重要程度與比價網站幾乎相同。
品牌可透過強化兩大面向,加速消費者的評估時間:打造具吸引力的互動介面、善用廣告刊登和轉換工具。針對前者,Facebook 提供多樣化平台及廣告創意格式,幫助品牌打造自家特色的行動廣告,讓全螢幕限時動態廣告毫無痕跡穿插於 Facebook、Instagram、Messenger 限時動態,縮短消費者購買考慮期。
FM Shoes 時尚美鞋將不同創意進行分組測試,製作出有創意又跳脫品牌過往形象的素材。品牌特別打造具「互動元素」的原生內容,投放到 Instagram 限時動態,廣告投資報酬率獲得 11% 成長。
善用品牌內容置入廣告不失為勾心消費者的另一策略。根據 Kantar 報告, 71% 的台灣消費者在社群媒體至少追蹤一位網紅;過半消費者表示,他們曾買過網紅代言或背書的商品。Future Lab 為打入泰國市場,與在地網紅合作,在 Facebook 及 Instagram 建立品牌置入內容廣告,主打網紅在日常生活情境使用產